The Great Pyramid of Giza (also known as the Pyramid of Khufu or the Pyramid of Cheops) is the oldest and largest of the tree pyramids in the Giza Necropolis bordering what is now El Giza,Egypt. It is one and oldest of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World and the only to remain intact. Egyptologists believe that the pyramid was built as a tomb for fourth dynasty Egyptian Pharaoh Khufu (Cheops in Greek) over a 10 to 20-year period concluding around 2560 BC. Initially at 146.5 meters (481 feet),the Great Pyramid was the tallest man-made structure in the world for over 3,800 years. Originally,the Great Pyramid was covered by casing stones that formed a smooth outer surface ; what is seen today in the underlying core stucture. Some of the casing stones that onced covered the structure can still be seen around the base. There have been varying scientific and alternerive theories about the Great Pyramid's construction techniques. Most accepted construction hypothesis are based on the idea that it was built by moving huge stones from a quarry and dragging and lifting into place.
There are three known chambers inside the Great Pyramid. The lowest chamer is cut into the bedrock which the pyramid is built and was unfinished. The so-called Queen Chamber and King's Chamber are higher up within the pyramid stucture.The Great Pyramid of Giza is the only pyramid in Egypt known to contain both ascending and descending. The main part of the Giza complex is a setting of buildings that included to mortuary temples in honor of Khufu (one close to the pyramid and one near the Nile River),three smaller pyramids were for Khufu's wives an even smaller sattelite pyramid,a raised causeway connecting the two temples,and small masbata tombs surrounding the pyramid for nobles.